Now showing items 185-204 of 506

    • A hybrid method based on linear programming and tabu search for routing of logging trucks 

      Flisberg, Patrik; Lidén, Bertil; Rönnqvist, Mikael (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007)
      In this paper, we consider an operational routing problem to decide the daily routes of logging trucks in forestry. The industrial problem is difficult and includes aspects such as pickup and delivery with split pickups, ...
    • Hybrid Pricing in a Coupled European Power Market with More Wind Power 

      Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong; Panos, Evangelos (Discussion paper;28/15, Working paper, 2015-10-28)
      In the European market, the promotion of wind power leads to more network congestion. Zonal pricing (market coupling), which does not take the physical characteristics of transmission into account, is the most commonly ...
    • Immobilizing Corporate Income Shifting: Should It Be Safe to Strip in the Harbor? 

      Gresik, Thomas A.; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper;31/15, Working paper, 2015-11-18)
      Many subsidiaries can deduct interest payments on internal debt from their taxable income. By issuing internal debt from a tax haven, multinationals can shift income out of host countries through the interest rates they ...
    • The impact of pecuniary costs on commuting flows 

      McArthur, David Philip; Kleppe, Gisle; Thorsen, Inge; Ubøe, Jan (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-05)
    • Implications of a nested stochastic/deterministic bio-economic model for a pelagic fishery 

      McDonald, A. David; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-03)
      Use is made of an economically optimal feedback rule to determine optimal levels of exploitation of a pelagic fish species. Data from the southern bluefin tuna fishery for the years 1960-1996 are utilized to apply this ...
    • Incentive provision when contracting is costly 

      Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-08)
      We analyze optimal incentive contracts in a model where the probability of court enforcement is determined by the costs spent on contracting. We show that contract costs matter for incentive provision, both in static spot ...
    • Income Shifting under Losses 

      Hopland, Arnt O.; Lisowsky, Petro; Mardan, Mohammed; Schindler, Dirk (Discussion paper;21/15, Working paper, 2015-09-16)
      This paper examines the flexibility of multinational firms to use income-shifting strategies within a tax year to react to operating losses. We develop a theoretical model that considers how affiliate losses can be ...
    • Insider trading with non-fiduciary market makers 

      Aase, Knut K.; Gjesdal, Frøystein (Discussion paper;8/16, Working paper, 2016-05-23)
      The single auction equilibrium of Kyle's (1985) is studied, in which market makers are not fiduciaries. They have some market power which they utilize to set the price to their advantage, resulting in positive expected ...
    • Insider trading with partially informed traders 

      Aase, Knut K.; Bjuland, Terje; Øksendal, Bernt (Discussion paper;2011:21, Working paper, 2011-11)
      The single auction equilibrium of Kyle's (1985) is studied, in which noise traders may be partially informed, or alternatively they can be manipulated. Unlike Kyle's assumption that the quantity traded by the noise ...
    • Integrated maritime bunker management with stochastic fuel prices and new emission regulations 

      Gu, Yewen; Wallace, Stein W.; Wang, Xin (Discussion paper;13/16, Working paper, 2016-08-25)
      Maritime bunker management (MBM) controls the procurement and consumption of the fuels used on board and therefore manages one of the most important cost drivers in the shipping industry. At the operational level, a shipping ...
    • Intergenerational Effects of Guaranteed Pension Contracts 

      Døskeland, Trond M.; Nordahl, Helge A. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-09)
      In this paper we show that there exist an intergenerational cross-subsidization effect in guaranteed interest rate life and pension contracts as the different generations partially share the same reserves. Early generations ...
    • Internal pricing in supply chains 

      Fjell, Kenneth; Jörnsten, Kurt (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001)
      A supply chain is two or more parties linked by a flow of goods, information and funds. Since this means that supply chain management concerns environments in which there are multiple decision makers, which may be different ...
    • International comparison of interest rate guarantees in life insurance 

      Cummins, J. David; Miltersen, Kristian R.; Persson, Svein-Arne (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-08)
      Interest rate guarantees seem to be included in life insurance and pension products in most countries. The exact implementations of these guarantees vary from country to country and are often linked to different distribution ...
    • International competition for R&D investments 

      Olsen, Trond E.; Osmundsen, Petter (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000-02)
      Two jurisdictions compete to attract shares of the R&D investment budget of a large multinational enterprise, whose investments potentially confer positive spillovers on national firms. The firm contributes to local welfare ...
    • International Debt Shifting: The Value Maximizing Mix of Internal and External Debt 

      Møen, Jarle; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm; Bakke, Julia Tropina (Discussion paper;1/19, Working paper, 2019-03-29)
      We study the capital structure of multinationals and expand previous theory by incorporating international debt tax shield effects from both internal and external capital markets. We show that: (i) multinationals' firm ...
    • Inventory management of spare parts in an energy company 

      Guajardo, Mario; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Halvorsen, Ann Mari; Kallevik, Svein Inge (Discussion paper;06/12, Working paper, 2012-06)
      We address a problem of inventory management of spare parts in the context of a large energy company, producer of oil and gas. Spare parts are critical for assuring operational conditions in offshore platforms. About ...
    • Investing in legal advice – What determines the costs of enforcing intellectual property rights? 

      Juranek, Steffen (Discussion paper;20/15, Working paper, 2015-08-28)
      This paper studies the determinants of investment in legal advice by plaintiffs in patent litigation. A hand-collected sample of US patent litigation cases is used to identify the empirical factors that determine the ...
    • Investing without credible inter-period regulations : a bargaining approach with application to investments in natural resources 

      Nordal, Kjell Bjørn (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1999-12)
      A government’s lack of credibility when promising future taxation and regulation of foreign direct investment is often regarded as an obstacle to foreign investment. As shown in this paper, the total lack of inter-period ...
    • The investment horizon problem : a resolution 

      Aase, Knut K. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-09)
      In the canonical model of investments, the optimal fractions in the risky assets do not depend on the time horizon. This is against empirical evidence, and against the typical recommendations of portfolio managers. We ...
    • Investor State Dispute Settlement and Multinational Firm Behavior 

      Schjelderup, Guttorm; Stähler, Frank (Discussion paper;4/17, Working paper, 2017-03-30)
      Investor-state dispute settlements (ISDS) were supposed to become an integral part of multilateral trade and investment agreements although the partner countries of these deals do not suffer from substantial institutional ...