• Breaking the glass ceiling? : the effect of board quotas on female labor market outcomes in Norway 

      Bertrand, Marianne; Black, Sandra E.; Jensen, Sissel; Lleras-Muney, Adriana (Discussion paper;28/2014, Working paper, 2014-08)
      In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent representation of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase the representation of women ...
    • Care or cash? : the effect of child care subsidies on student performance 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Løken, Katrine Vellesen; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper;13/2012, Working paper, 2012-05)
      Given the wide use of childcare subsidies across countries, it is surprising how little we know about the effect of these subsidies on children’s longer run outcomes. Using a sharp discontinuity in the price of childcare ...
    • Does grief transfer across generations? Bereavements during pregnancy and child outcomes 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Using population data from Norway, we examine the effects of stress induced by the death of the mother’s parent during pregnancy on both the short-run and the long-run outcomes of the infant. Using a variety of empirical ...
    • Does grief transfer across generations? In-utero deaths and child outcomes 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper;23/2014, Working paper, 2014-06)
      While much is now known about the effects of physical health shocks to pregnant women on the outcomes of the in-utero child, we know little about the effects of psychological stresses. One clear form of stress to the ...
    • Fast times at Ridgemont High? : the effect of compulsory schooling laws on teenage births 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-09)
      Research suggests that teenage childbearing adversely affects both the outcomes of the mothers as well as those of their children. We know that low-educated women are more likely to have a teenage birth, but does this ...
    • From the cradle to the labor market? : the effect of birth weight on adult outcomes 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-11)
      Lower birth weight babies have worse outcomes, both short-run in terms of oneyear mortality rates and longer run in terms of educational attainment and earnings. However, recent research has called into question whether ...
    • From the cradle to the labor market? : the effect of birth weight on adult outcomes 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Working Paper, Working paper, 2005-12)
      Lower birth weight babies have worse outcomes, both short-run in terms of one-year mortality rates and longer run in terms of educational attainment and earnings. However, recent research has called into question whether ...
    • Healthy(?), Wealthy, and Wise Birth Order and Adult Health. 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G. (SAM;03/2016, Working paper, 2016-02-12)
      While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education, IQ scores, and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large dataset on ...
    • Like father, like son? : a note on the intergenerational transmission of IQ scores 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-09)
      More able parents tend to have more able children. While few would question the validity of this statement, there is little large-scale evidence on the intergenerational transmission of IQ scores. Using a larger and more ...
    • Losing heart? : the effect of job displacement on health 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper;26/2012, Working paper, 2012-12)
      Job reallocation is considered to be a key characteristic of well-functioning labor markets, as more productive firms grow and less productive ones contract or close. However, despite its potential benefits for the ...
    • The more the merrier? : the effect of family composition on children’s education 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-08)
      Among the perceived inputs in the “production” of child quality is family size; there is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is ...
    • The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth children’s education 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Working paper, Working paper, 2005-01)
      There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the ...
    • Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men 

      Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-08)
      While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset ...
    • Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Working paper, Working paper, 2007-08)
      While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset ...
    • Small family, smart family? : family size and the IQ scores of young men 

      Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-08)
      How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of ...
    • Small family, smart family? : family size and the IQ scores of young men 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Working paper, Working paper, 2007-08)
      How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive ...
    • Small family, smart family? Family size and the IQ scores of young men 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2010)
      This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; ...
    • Too young to leave the nest ? : the effects of school starting age 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-06)
      Does it matter when a child starts school? While the popular press seems to suggest it does, there is limited evidence of a long-run effect of school starting age on student outcomes. This paper uses data on the population ...
    • Under pressure? : the effect of peers on outcomes of young adults 

      Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Devereux, Paul J.; Black, Sandra E. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-05)
      A variety of public campaigns, including the “Just Say No” campaign of the 1980s and 1990s that encouraged teenagers to “Just Say No to Drugs”, are based on the premise that teenagers are very susceptible to peer influences. ...
    • Why the apple doesn't fall far: Understanding intergenerational transmission of human capital 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2005)
      Parents with higher education levels have children with higher education levels. Why is this? There are a number of possible explanations. One is a pure selection story: the type of parent who has more education and earns ...