Hydrogen in the maritime sector : a feasibility study on hydrogen as fuel in Norwegian ferries
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- Master Thesis 
To ensure emission reductions in the maritime sector, the Norwegian Parliament has established that all new ferry tenders should include a requirement for the use of lowand zero-emission technology where it is technologically feasible. Battery technology has proven successful as a zero-emission alternative on shorter ferry routes, but has difficulty providing sufficient amounts of energy for the longer routes. Hydrogen technology, on the other hand, can achieve ranges comparable to conventional fuels, and is becoming increasingly popular as a zero-emission fuel in transportation. This thesis provides an assessment of using hydrogen on the longer ferry routes, both in terms of environmental impact and economic implications. When comparing hydrogen to the most realistic alternative, liquid natural gas, we find that hydrogen is in most cases a less cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. Even though hydrogen eliminates emissions completely, its price being too high coupled with expensive fuel cell technology, makes hydrogen powered ferries less competitive. Nevertheless, there could be reasons for hydrogen ferries to be introduced, and an overview of which routes should be considered first will be laid forth in this thesis. Given future price reductions in hydrogen and fuel cell technology, hydrogen could be a viable zero-emission alternative fuel for longer routes with tender contracts ending further into the future.