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dc.contributor.authorLindstad, Haakon
dc.contributor.authorEskeland, Gunnar
dc.contributor.authorPsaraftis, Harilaos
dc.contributor.authorSandaas, Inge
dc.contributor.authorStrømman, Anders Hammer
dc.identifier.citationOcean Engineering 2015, 110(B):94-101nb_NO
dc.description-This is an open access article under the CC BY licensenb_NO
dc.description.abstractPolicy emphasis in ship design must be shifted away from global and idealized towards regional based and realistic vessel operating conditions. The present approach to reducing shipping emissions through technical standards tends to neglect how damages and abatement opportunities vary according to location and operational conditions. Since environmental policy originates in damages relating to ecosystems and jurisdictions, a three-layered approach to vessel emissions is intuitive and practical. Here, we suggest associating damages and policies with ports, coastal areas possibly defined as Emission Control Areas (ECA) as in in North Sea and the Baltic, and open seas globally. This approach offers important practical opportunities: in ports, clean fuels or even electrification is possible; in ECAs, cleaner fuels and penalties for damaging fuels are important, but so is vessel handling, such as speeds and utilization. Globally we argue that it may be desirable to allow burning very dirty fuels at high seas, due to the cost advantages, the climate cooling benefits, and the limited ecosystem impacts. We quantify the benefits and cost savings from reforming current IMO and other approaches towards environmental management with a three-layered approach, and argue it is feasible and worth considering.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell-IngenBearbeidelse 3.0 Norge*
dc.subjectshipping and the environmentnb_NO
dc.subjectabatement cost and optionsnb_NO
dc.subjectgreenhouse gasesnb_NO
dc.subjectheavy fuel oilnb_NO
dc.subjectIMO and ECAnb_NO
dc.titleMaritime Shipping and Emissions: A three-layered, damage based approachnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.rights.holder©2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.nb_NO
dc.source.journalOcean Engineeringnb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 239113nb_NO

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