Environmental sustainability practices in European ports : an analysis of environmental management system tools, sustainability instruments and green practices, improving environmental performance of European cruise ports
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- Master Thesis 
The main subject of this Thesis is the environmental sustainability management tools used to improve environmental performance of European ports. In the first part the problem of environmental impacts from port operations is introduced with a focus on air pollution caused by emissions from the cruise vessels visiting ports. Here the main pollutants are described, and their impact on human health is addressed. Then, the comparison of main environmental management system tools is drawn. Finally, an overview over environmental policy aspects and sustainability reporting principles are provided. In the second part of the Thesis thirteen biggest European cruise harbours, including the Port of Bergen, have been analysed within a developed system of environmental management performance indicators. The analysis includes determining the most popular environmental management tool and other environmental sustainability instruments and green practices in ports. Importance of communicating environmental ambitions both to port employees and to external stakeholders as well as the advantages of sharing knowledge through the network with other ports and collaboration with local businesses have been emphasized. Additionally, the researched ports’ environmental priorities have been addressed with the main focus on air quality and onshore power supply technology as a possible mitigation of emissions from cruise vessels docked at ports. The findings of the research might urge the Bergen Port Authorities to adopt some sustainability practices used in other cruise ports and consider environmental management system certification alternative to ISO 14001 international standard that the port is aiming to implement.