Combatting Climate Change with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) An exploratory study on the implementation of CCS in the Norwegian iron and steel sector.
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- Master Thesis 
Today, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered by many as the most credible and costeffective method of combatting global warming and meeting the climate change targets. Despite this, CCS remains a novel technology within the Norwegian iron and steel sector. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to analyse the macroenvironment surrounding CCS for this sector. This is done to understand how well the Norwegian iron and steel sector is suited for CCS implementation, and to what extent government policies are necessary in order to accelerate development and deployment of the technology. The research questions are answered using a combination of the PESTEL framework and environmental economic policies. PESTEL allows for the identification of opportunities and barriers in the market. The results from this analysis reveal that the Norwegian Government shows a high degree of commitment to CCS through specific projects and funding. However, as the cost of CCS exceeds the cost of carbon set by the EU ETS, CCS is not currently an economically viable abatement technology for the iron and steel case facilities. For this reason, government policies are necessary to boost development and deployment during a ramp up stage, until the cost of CCS falls or the price of carbon rises. While it is clear that government involvement is required, which policies are most effective is less obvious. Yet, based on the PESTEL findings, it appears that policy attention should be directed towards decentralised and incentive-based policies instead of command-and-control policies. Furthermore, policies should not be implemented in isolation. Instead, a combination of policies is necessary to achieve the desired goals.