The Future of Hydrogen in the Norwegian Shipping Industry : An exploratory case study of the Norwegian shipping industry and its readiness for hydrogen short-sea vessels
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- Master Thesis 
With increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping industry there is a need to find alternative fuels to reach climate targets. Hydrogen as a marine fuel is considered one of the promising solutions to reduce emissions from the maritime sector. At the same time, hydrogen technology for maritime application remains novel in Norway. Hence, the aim of this thesis is to provide valuable knowledge that could be used to facilitate a transition to hydrogen vessels, and is done with two goals. The first goal is to provide understanding of important drivers and barriers for the transition, by using the PESTEL framework to analyse the macro environment in the sector. The results from the analysis discovered that authorities show commitment to the transition by establishing strategies and providing subsidies. Also, Norwegian maritime sector has facilities that could give a competitive advantage in the transition. However, both the cost of acquiring and operating a hydrogen vessel is substantially larger than alternative fossil vessels, and is therefore not an economically feasible option. Hence, the second goal is to analyse how CID can be used by the Norwegian government to reduce barriers and accelerate deployment of hydrogen vessels. Although it is unclear if the use of CID is the most appropriate measure, the findings suggest that issuing CfDs would provide increased incentives for shipowners to invest in hydrogen vessels. This would also increase development and implementation of hydrogen technology, which contributes to reduced cost and increased competitiveness with fossil alternatives.