A note on upward pricing pressure : the possibility of false positives
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- Discussion papers (SAM) 
Farrell and Shapiro proposed a simple test of the possible upward pricing pressure (UPP) following a merger. They showed that the test may give false negatives, that is, indicate that a merger may not give an UPP, while a more comprehensive test would indicate the opposite. We show that their test applied to a case with asymmetric firms may give false positives.