Now showing items 1-20 of 514

    • Mixed Member Proportional with faithful accounting 

      Stensholt, Eivind (Discussion paper;5/21, Working paper, 2021-03-15)
      With present (2021) tally rules, the number of seats in the Bundestag is highly volatile. In 2017 it got 709 seats, 111 of them extra-ordinary. The rules may double the influence of a voter who splits the ballot, contrary ...
    • Size-based input price discrimination under endogenous inside options 

      Evensen, Charlotte B.; Foros, Øystein; Haugen, Atle; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper;4/21, Working paper, 2021-03-04)
      Individual retailers may choose to invest in a substitute to a dominant supplier’s products (inside option) as a way of improving its position towards the supplier. Given that a large retailer has stronger investment ...
    • Classroom experiments on technology licensing: Royalty stacking, cross-licensing and patent pools 

      Haugen, Atle; Juranek, Steffen (Discussion paper;3/21, Working paper, 2021-02-11)
      We present two classroom experiments on technology licensing. The first classroom experiment introduces the concept of royalty stacking. The students learn that non-cooperative pricing of royalties for complementary ...
    • The optimal spending rate versus the expected real return of a sovereign wealth fund 

      Aase, Knut K.; Bjerksund, Petter (Discussion paper;1/21, Working paper, 2021-02-04)
      We consider a sovereign wealth fund that invests broadly in the international financial markets. The influx to the fund has stopped. We adopt the life cycle model and demonstrate that the optimal spending rate from the ...
    • Information about Fewer Audits Reduces Support for Economic Relief Programs 

      Haaland, Ingar; Olden, Andreas (Discussion paper;2/21, Working paper, 2021-02-05)
      Using a probability-based sample of the Norwegian population, we test whether an informational treatment about fewer audits by the Norwegian Tax Administration during the peak of the COVID-19 crisis affects support for an ...
    • Fraud detection by a multinomial model: Separating honesty from unobserved fraud 

      Andersson, Jonas; Olden, Andreas; Rusina, Aija (Discussion paper;15/20, Working paper, 2020-12-31)
      In this paper we investigate the EM-estimator of the model by Caudill et al. (2005). The purpose of the model is to identify items, e.g. individuals or companies, that are wrongly classified as honest; an example of this ...
    • Coordinate to obfuscate? The role of prior announcements of recommended prices 

      Foros, Øystein; Nguyen-Ones, Mai (Discussion paper;14/20, Working paper, 2020-11-18)
      Firms may want to coordinate industry-wide price jumps that are predictable for rivals, however, unpredictable for consumers. We show how such coordination is carried out in Norwegian gasoline retailing. Overnight, the ...
    • Elements of economics of uncertainty and time with recursive utility 

      Aase, Knut K. (Discussion paper;13/20, Working paper, 2020-10-30)
      We address how recursive utility affects important results in the theory of economics of uncertainty and time, as compared to the standard model, where the focus is on dynamic models in discrete time. Several puzzles ...
    • Capital Regulations and the Management of Credit Commitments during Crisis Times 

      Pelzl, Paul; Valderrama, Maria Teresa (Discussion paper;12/20, Working paper, 2020-10-15)
      Drawdowns on credit commitments by firms reduce a bank’s capital buffer. Exploiting Austrian credit register data and the 2008-09 financial crisis as exogenous shock to bank health, we provide novel evidence that ...
    • Royalty Taxation under Profit Shifting and Competition for FDI 

      Juranek, Steffen; Schindler, Dirk; Schneider, Andrea (Discussion paper;11/20, Working paper, 2020-09-09)
      Multinational corporations increasingly use royalty payments for intellectual property rights to shift profits globally. This threatens not only the tax base of countries worldwide, it also affects the nature of competition ...
    • Mixed Member Proportional; equal influence and assembly size 

      Stensholt, Eivind (Discussion paper;10/20, Working paper, 2020-08-31)
      With the present (2020) tally rules, the number of seats in the Bundestag is highly volatile. In 2017 it got 709 seats, 111 of them extra-ordinary. The tally rules may double the influence of a voter who splits the vote; ...
    • Investor-State Dispute Settlement and Multinational Firm Behavior 

      Schjelderup, Guttorm; Stähler, Frank (Discussion paper;9/20, Working paper, 2020-08-28)
      This paper shows that Investor-State Dispute Settlements (ISDS) makes multinational firms more aggressive by increasing cost-reducing investments with the aim to enlarge the potential compensation an ISDS provision may ...
    • Labor Market Effects of COVID-19 in Sweden and its Neighbors: Evidence from Novel Administrative Data 

      Juranek, Steffen; Paetzold, Jörg; Winner, Hannes; Zoutman, Floris T. (Discussion paper;8/20, Working paper, 2020-07-24)
      This paper studies the labor market effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We focus on the Nordic countries which showed one of the highest variations in NPIs despite having ...
    • Playing Easy or Playing Hard to Get: When and How to Attract FDI 

      Gresik, Thomas A.; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper;7/20, Working paper, 2020-06-30)
      We study the link between a country’s institutional quality in tax collection and its optimal corporate tax policies in a model of heterogeneous multinationals that can shift income using both debt and transfer prices. ...
    • Contingent Claims Evaluation when the Convenience Yield is Stochastic: Analytical Results 

      Bjerksund, Petter (Discussion paper;1/91, Working paper, 1991-02)
      This paper considers contingent claims on a commodity when both the spot price and the convenience yield are generated by diffusion processes. By adopting the Gibson and Schwartz (1990) assumptions on the economy, we derive ...
    • Anomalies of Instant Runoff Voting 

      Stensholt, Eivind (Discussion paper;6/20, Working paper, 2020-06-23)
      Struggles over the single-seat preferential election method IRV (Instant Runoff Voting) go on in public arenas and scientific journals, with focus on two “anomalies”. “Monotonicity failures” are preference distributions ...
    • Sampling risk evaluations in a tax fraud case: Some modelling issues 

      Lillestøl, Jostein (Discussion paper;5/20, Working paper, 2020-05-13)
      This work is a follow-up to Lillestøl (2019). The context is the use of sample data to support claims of tax fraud at eateries, where the possibilities of embezzlement are overreporting of take-away sales and underreporting ...
    • Software vulnerabilities and bug bounty programs 

      Bienz, Carsten; Juranek, Steffen (Discussion paper;4/20, Working paper, 2020-05-12)
      Many software developers employ bug bounty programs that award a prize for the detection of bugs in their software. We analyze, in a model with asymmetric information, under which conditions a bug bounty program is beneficial ...
    • Balanced scorecards: a relational contract approach 

      Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E. (Discussion paper;3/20, Working paper, 2020-05-08)
      Reward systems based on balanced scorecards typically connect pay to an index, i.e. a weighted sum of multiple performance measures. However, there is no formal incentive model that actually describe this kind of index ...
    • The Effect of Social Distancing Measures on Intensive Care Occupancy: Evidence on COVID-19 in Scandinavia 

      Juranek, Steffen; Zoutman, Floris T. (Discussion paper;2/20, Working paper, 2020-04-29)
      Understanding the effectiveness of social distancing on the spread of COVID-19 is crucial to justify economically costly social distancing measures. We present a case study focusing on the three Scandinavian countries. ...