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dc.contributor.authorLindstad, Haakon
dc.contributor.authorEskeland, Gunnar
dc.identifier.citationTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 2015nb_NO
dc.description-This is an open access article under the CC BY license.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractThree responses that reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in maritime transport are slower speeds, larger vessels and slender hull designs. We use crude oil carriers as our illustrative example; these represent nearly a quarter of international sea cargo movements. We estimate the potential and costs in these which can all be described as capital substituting for energy and emissions. At different degrees of flexibility and time scales: Speed reductions are feasible immediately when there are vessels available, though more capital will be tied up in cargo. Deployment of larger and more slender vessels to a greater extent requires fleet renovation, and also investments in ports and infrastructure. A novel finding in our analysis is that if bunker costs rise as a result of emission costs (fees, quotas), then this may depress speeds and emissions more than if they result from higher oil prices. The reason is that for higher oil prices, more capital tied up in cargo may give cargo owners an interest in speeding up, partly counteracting the impulse from fuel costs that tends to slow vessels down. Emission costs, in contrast, do not raise cargo values.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell-IngenBearbeidelse 3.0 Norge*
dc.subjectcapital energy substitutionnb_NO
dc.subjectshipping and the environmentnb_NO
dc.subjectship designnb_NO
dc.subjectmarket based instrumentsnb_NO
dc.titleLow carbon maritime transport: How speed, size and slenderness amounts to Substantial Capital Energy Substitutionnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.rights.holder©2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.nb_NO
dc.source.journalTransportation Research Part Dnb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 237917/O30nb_NO

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Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell-IngenBearbeidelse 3.0 Norge
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