Hotspot crowding and over-tourism: Antecedents of destination attractiveness
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionAnnals of Tourism Research. 2019, 76 53-66. 10.1016/j.annals.2019.02.011
This study develops a unique model capturing antecedents of place attractiveness in tourism hotspot crowding contexts. A structural equation model reveals three density dimensions: one destination image variable and two avoidance versus approach reactions that influence assessments of crowding attitude and destination appraisals. Perceived density dimensions affect destination appraisals with varying intensities and valences. Both positive and negative sentiments are present – the former as excitement, fun and conviviality resulting from peoplewatching and socialising, and the latter as discomfort and resentment resulting from personal space violations and reduced feelings of uniqueness. Many tourist types are included in this study in historic town centres and villages in iconic fjord landscapes in Norway. Cruise passengers are more crowding tolerant than self-organised travellers.