• Access pricing, quality degradation, and foreclosure in the Internet 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-03)
      Access to both a local and a global network is needed in order to get complete connection to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the interplay between those two networks and how it affects the domestic ...
    • Access pricing, quality degradation and foreclosure in the internet 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2000-03)
      Access to both a local and a global network is needed in order to get complete connection to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the interplay between those two networks and how it affects the domestic ...
    • An acquisition in the Nordic ferry market: rivalry or coordination on capacity? 

      Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2000-12)
      The purpose of this article is to test the effect of Color Line’s acquisition of Larvik Line in September 1996. We formulate theoretical predictions for the changes in sales, capacity and capacity utilisation following an ...
    • A note on upward pricing pressure : the possibility of false positives 

      Mathiesen, Lars; Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;11/2012, Working paper, 2012-05)
      Farrell and Shapiro proposed a simple test of the possible upward pricing pressure (UPP) following a merger. They showed that the test may give false negatives, that is, indicate that a merger may not give an UPP, while ...
    • A note on upward pricing pressure: the possibility of false positives 

      Mathiesen, Lars; Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Sørgard, Lars (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      Joseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro proposed a simple test of the possible upward pricing pressure (UPP) following a merger. They showed that the test may give false negatives—that is, indicate that a merger may not give an ...
    • Business models for media firms : does competition matter for how they raise revenue? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the ...
    • Business models for media firms : does competition matter for how they raise revenue? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2008-08)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence how media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the viewers ...
    • Collude, compete, or both? : deregulation in the Norwegian airline industry 

      Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1998-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to test the nature of competition concerning price and capacity setting in the Norwegian airline industry after the deregulation in 1994. Did the two airlines, SAS and Braathens, compete on ...
    • Collude, compete, or both? : deregulation in the Norwegian airline industry 

      Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2000-12)
      The purpose of this paper is to test the nature of competition concerning price and capacity setting in the Norwegian airline industry after the deregulation in 1994. Did the two airlines, SAS and Braathens, compete on ...
    • Competition between content distributors in two-sided markets 

      Bergh, Harald Nygård; Kind, Hans Jarle; Reme, Bjørn-Atle; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper;11/12, Working paper, 2012-05)
      We analyze strategic interactions between two competing distributors of an independent TV channel. Consistent with most of the relevant markets, we assume that the distributors set end-user prices while the TV channel sets ...
    • Competition for viewers and advertisers in a tv oligopoly 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2006-12)
      We consider a model of a TV oligopoly where TV channels transmit advertising and viewers dislike such commercials. We show that advertisers make a lower profit the larger the number of TV channels. If TV channels are ...
    • Contracting versus bypassing 

      Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper, Working paper, 2003-11)
      One existing distributor controls the existing access to end users. There are one incumbent producer and one potential entrant, both with a potential for bypassing the distributor. We find that the distributor always signs ...
    • Crime and punishment : when tougher antitrust enforcement leads to higher overcharge 

      Jensen, Sissel; Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E.; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;4/2013, Working paper, 2013-02)
      The economics of crime and punishment postulates that higher punishment leads to lower crime levels, or less severe crime. It is however hard to get empirical support for this intuitive relationship. This paper offers ...
    • Crime and punishment: When tougher antitrust enforcement leads to higher overcharge 

      Jensen, Sissel; Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E.; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;05/13, Working paper, 2013-05)
      The economics of crime and punishment postulates that higher punishment leads to lower crime levels, or less severe crime. It is how- ever hard to get empirical support for this rather intuitive relationship. This paper ...
    • Cross-border mergers and domestic wages: integrating positive 'spillover' effects and negative 'bargaining' effects 

      Clougherty, Joseph A.; Gugler, Klaus; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion papers;10/2011, Working paper, 2011-06)
      The existing literature concerning the impact of cross-border merger activity on domestic wages can be split into two camps: 1) those focusing on positive ‘spillover’ effects; 2) those focusing on negative ‘bargaining’ ...
    • Disadvantageous semicollusion : price competition in the Norwegian airline industry 

      Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;27/2012, Working paper, 2012-12)
      Motivated by observations in the Norwegian airline industry in the late 90s, we develop a semicollusive model with collusion on gross prices and competition on contracts for large customers (corporate contracts). The ...
    • Downstream merger with upstream market power 

      Lommerud, Kjell Erik; Straume, Odd Rune; Sørgard, Lars (Working Paper, Working paper, 2002-12)
      We examine how a downstream merger affects input prices and, in turn, the profitability of a such a merger under Cournot competition with differentiated products. Input suppliers can be interpreted as ordinary upstream ...
    • Electricity production in a hydro system with a reservoir constraint 

      Mathiesen, Lars; Skaar, Jostein; Sørgard, Lars (2011:03, Working paper, 2011-02)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze how market power may affect the allocation of production between seasons (summer and winter) in a hydro power system with reservoir constraints and inflow uncertainty. We find that ...
    • Enforcement vs deterrence in merger control : can remedies lead to lower welfare? 

      Cosnita-Langlais, Andreea; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;7/2014, Working paper, 2014-03)
      This paper deals with the enforcement of merger policy, and aims to study how merger remedies affect the deterrence accomplished by controlling mergers. We determine the optimal frequency of investigations launched by ...
    • Enforcement with heterogeneous cartels 

      Jensen, Sissel; Sørgard, Lars (Working paper;14/12, Working paper, 2012-07)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze the minimum fines needed in order to prevent price fixing when there is heterogeneity in the potential for a cartel overcharge across industries. We show that the incentive constraint ...