• Access pricing, quality degradation, and foreclosure in the Internet 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-03)
      Access to both a local and a global network is needed in order to get complete connection to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the interplay between those two networks and how it affects the domestic ...
    • The broadband access market : competition, uniform pricing and geographical coverage 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-12)
      In this paper we analyze the market for broadband access. A key feature of this market is that it is considerably more expensive to connect consumers in rural locations than in urban locations. We show that while competition ...
    • Business models for media firms : does competition matter for how they raise revenue? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the ...
    • Competing for capital in a "lumpy" world 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Midelfart, Karen Helene; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1999-04)
    • Corporate tax systems, multinational enterprises, and economic integration 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Midelfart, Karen Helene; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-07)
      Multinational firms are known to shift profits and countries are known to compete over shifty profits. Two major principles for corporate taxation are Separate Accounting (SA) and Formula Apportionment (FA). These two ...
    • Do consumers buy less of a taxed good? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Koethenbuerger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-01)
      This paper shows that consumers may buy more of a taxed good if it is sold by a two-sided platform firm. Two-sided platform industries serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and ...
    • Do slotting allowances harm retail competition? 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-09)
      Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Both in the USA and Europe, the use of slotting allowances has attracted attention in the general press as well as among policy ...
    • Financing of media firms : does competition matter? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-01)
      This paper analyses how competition between media firms influences the way they are financed. In a setting where monopoly media firms choose to be completely financed by consumer payments, competition may lead the ...
    • Industrial agglomeration and capital taxation 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Midelfart, Karen Helene; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1998-07)
      Models with imperfect competition and intra-industry trade have become widely accepted as appropriate frameworks within which to analyze the impact of trade liberalization on industrial agglomeration. This paper makes ...
    • Inter-firm price coordination in a two-sided market 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper;16/2014, Working paper, 2014-05)
      In many two-sided markets we observe that there is a common distributor on one side of the market. One example is the TV industry, where TV channels choose advertising prices to maximize own profit and typically ...
    • International complementarities in the Internet : should local access prices be regulated? 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-05)
      The Internet can be seen as the convergence of different industries, such as telecommunication, software and media, into an international oligopoly offering complementary products. In most of these industries we have ...
    • Market shares in two-sided media industries 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Stähler, Frank (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-03)
      This paper generalizes the frequently used Hotelling model for two-sided markets in order to determine the equilibrium market shares. We show that independent of whether consumers are uniformly or non-uniformly distributed, ...
    • Media competition on the Internet 

      Barros, Pedro P.; Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-08)
      This paper presents a model of competition between two advertisingfinanced media firms, and we apply the model to analyze competition between portals on the Internet. First, we show that equilibrium prices of advertising ...
    • Media market concentration, advertising levels, and ad prices 

      Anderson, Simon P.; Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Peitz, Martin (Discussion Papers;24/2011, Working paper, 2011-12)
      Standard media economics models imply that increased platform com- petition decreases ad levels and that mergers reduce per-viewer ad prices. The empirical evidence, however, is mixed. We attribute the theoretical predictions ...
    • Mergers and partial ownership 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Shaffer, Greg (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-01)
      In this paper we compare the profitability of a merger to the profitability of a partial ownership arrangement and find that partial ownership arrangements can be more profitable for the acquiring and acquired firm because ...
    • Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport 

      Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-10)
      This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the ...
    • Newspaper Differentiation and Investments in Journalism: The Role of Tax Policy 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Schjelderup, Guttorm; Stähler, Frank (Discussion Papers;16/2011, Working paper, 2011-09)
      Many countries levy reduced-rate indirect taxes on newspapers, with proclaimed policy goals of stimulating investment in journalism and ensuring low newspaper prices. However, by taking into account the fact that the ...
    • Newspapers and advertising : the effects of ad-valorem taxation under duopoly 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Schjelderup, Guttorm; Stähler, Frank (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-12)
      Newspapers are two-sided platforms that sell their product both to readers and advertisers. Media firms in general, and newspapers in particular, are considered important providers of information, culture and language ...
    • Price-dependent profit sharing as an escape from the Bertrand paradox 

      Foros, Øystein; Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-01)
      In this paper we show how an upstream firm can prevent destructive competition among downstream firms producing relatively close substitutes by implementing a price-dependent profit-sharing rule. The rule also ensures ...
    • Price-dependent profit-sharing as a channel coordination device 

      Foros, Øystein; Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      We show how an upstream firm by using a price-dependent profit-sharing rule can prevent destructive competition between downstream firms that produce relatively close substitutes. With this rule the upstream firm induces ...