• A Meritocratic Origin of Egalitarian Behavior 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Mollestrom, Johanna; Reme, Bjørn-Atle; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;09/2019, Working paper, 2019-04-29)
      The meritocratic fairness ideal implies that inequalities in earnings are regarded as fair only when they reflect differences in performance. Consequently, implementation of the meritocratic fairness ideal requires complete ...
    • Adverse selection into competition: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment in Tanzania 

      Almås, Ingvild; Berge, Lars Ivar; Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Somville, Vincent; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;19/2020, Working paper, 2020-09)
      An influential literature has shown that women are less willing to compete than men, and the gender gap in competition may contribute to explaining gender differences in educational choices and labor market outcomes. This ...
    • Any non-welfarist method of policy assessment violates the Pareto principle : a comment 

      Fleurbaey, Marc; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-09)
    • A balanced view of development as freedom 

      Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-10)
      Amartya Sen, in his most recent book Development as Freedom, argues that expansion of human freedom should both be viewed as the primary end and the principle means of development. This paper provides an overview and a ...
    • Competitiveness, gender and handedness: a large-sample intercultural study 

      Buser, Thomas; Cappelen, Alexander; Gneezy, Uri; Hoffman, Moshe; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;02/2020, Working paper, 2020-01)
      We conduct a large-scale intercultural experiment to elicit competitiveness and ask whether individual and gender differences in competitiveness are partially determined by nature. We use being a “lefty” (i.e., having ...
    • Cutthroat capitalism versus cuddly socialism: Are Americans more meritocratic and efficiency-seeking than Scandinavians? 

      Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;18/2016, Working paper, 2016-11-29)
      There is a striking difference in income inequality and redistributive policies between the United States and Scandinavia. To study whether there is a corresponding cross-country difference in social preferences, we ...
    • Cutthroat capitalism versus cuddly socialism: Are Americans more meritocratic and efficiency-seeking than Scandinavians? 

      Almas, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W.; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;04/2019, Working paper, 2019-02)
      There are striking differences in inequality and redistribution between the United States and Scandinavia. To study whether there are corresponding differences in social preferences, we conducted a large-scale international ...
    • Disability compensation and responsibility 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-12)
      It is a central political goal to secure disabled individuals the same opportunities as others to pursue their conception of a good life. This goal reflects an ambition to combine an egalitarian and a liberal moral intuition. ...
    • Do Koopmans’ postulates lead to discounted utilitarianism? 

      Tungodden, Bertil; Asheim, Geir B. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-12)
      In this paper we consider variations of Koopmans’ (1960) postulates and demonstrate that these lead to a class of social preferences that is wider than discounted utilitarianism. We formulate a utilitiarian condition ...
    • Do non-enforceable contracts matter? Evidence from an international lab experiment 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Hagen, Rune Jansen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;2/2012, Working paper, 2012-02)
      Many verifiable contracts are impossible or difficult to enforce. This applies to contracts among family and friends, contracts regulating market transactions, and sovereign debt contracts. Do such non-enforceable contracts ...
    • Efficiency, equality and reciprocity in social preferences : a comparison of students and representative population 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Tungodden, Bertil; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Nygaard, Knut (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-11)
      The debate between Engelmann and Strobel (2004, 2006) and Fehr, Naef, and Schmidt (2006) highlights the important question of the extent to which lab experiments on student populations can serve to identify the motivational ...
    • Empowering the disabled through savings groups: Experimental evidence from Uganda. 

      Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;5/2018, Working paper, 2018-03)
      We report from the first randomized controlled trial of a development program targeting people with disabilities: a village savings‐ and loans program in rural Uganda. We find that it has had a strong, positive impact ...
    • Equity theory and fair inequality: a neuroconomic study 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Eichele, Tom; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;19/15, Working paper, 2015-08)
      The present paper reports results from the first study designed to examine the neuronal responses to income inequality in situations in which individuals have made different contributions in terms of work effort. ...
    • Exercise Improves Academic Performance. 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Charness, Gary; Ekström, Mathias; Gneezy, Uri; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;8/2017, Working paper, 2017-08)
      We report the results of a randomized controlled trial testing whether incentivizing physical exercise improves the academic performance of college students. As expected, the intervention increases physical activity. The ...
    • Face-saving or fair-minded : what motivates moral behavior? 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Halvorsen, Trond; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;5/2013, Working paper, 2013-02)
      We study the relative importance of intrinsic moral motivation and extrinsic social motivation in explaining behavior in the dictator game. We introduce a novel design that manipulates these two dimensions. The paper ...
    • Fairness and family background 

      Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W.; Salvanes, Kjell G.; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;25/15, Working paper, 2015-10)
      Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect ...
    • Fairness and the Development of Inequality Acceptance 

      Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W.; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;18/15, Working paper, 2015-08)
      Fairness considerations fundamentally affect human behavior, but our understanding of the nature and development of people’s fairness preferences is limited. The dictator game has been the standard experimental design for ...
    • Fairness in bankruptcy situations: an experimental study 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Luttens, Roland I.; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper;17/15, Working paper, 2015-08)
      The pari passu principle is the most prominent principle in the law of insolvency. We report from a lab experiment designed to study whether people find this principle a fair solution to the bankruptcy problem. The ...
    • Fairness in Winner-Take-All Markets 

      Bartling, Björn; Cappelen, Alexander W.; Ekström, Mathias; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (DP SAM;8/2018, Working paper, 2018-04)
      The paper reports the first experimental study on people’s fairness views on extreme income inequalities arising from winner-take-all reward structures. We find that the majority of participants consider extreme income ...
    • Fairness is intuitive 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik H.; Tungodden, Bertil; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik (Discussion paper;9/2014, Working paper, 2014-04)
      In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust ...