Now showing items 451-470 of 506

    • The Effects of a Day Off from Retail Price Competition: Evidence on Consumer Behavior and Firm Performance in Gasoline Retailing 

      Foros, Øystein; Nguyen, Mai Thi; Steen, Frode (Discussion paper;9/17, Working paper, 2017-07-06)
      First, we analyze how regular days off from competition and a time-dependent price pattern affect firm performance. Second, we examine the effects on firms' profitability from consumers’ changing search- and timing behavior. ...
    • The ensemble Kalman filter in bioeconomics 

      Kvamsdal, Sturla Furunes; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer (Discussion paper;2012:5, Working paper, 2012-05)
      We demonstrate the power of the Ensemble Kalman Filter in specifying ecosystem models ideal for bioeconomic analysis. Bioeconomic analysis requires models to be relatively simple, but models must still capture the nature ...
    • The equity premium in a production economy; A new perspective involving recursive utility 

      Aase, Knut K. (Discussion paper;15/15, Working paper, 2015-04-10)
      We study a rational expectations' competitive equilibrium in a production economy, i.e., a system of prices at which firms' profit maximizing production decisions and individuals' preferred affordable consumption choices ...
    • The Flow-Based Market Coupling Model and the Bidding Zone Configuration 

      Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong (Discussion paper;15/18, Working paper, 2018-10-24)
      In May 2015, the Flow-Based Market Coupling (FBMC) model replaced the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) model in Central Western Europe to determine the power transfer among bidding zones in the day-ahead market. It might ...
    • The Green Paradox and learning by doing 

      Hannesson, Rögnvaldur (Discussion paper;17/18, Working paper, 2018-12-13)
      Production of a renewable substitute to fossil fuels is modeled as causing the cost of this backstop technology to fall over time in proportion to the scale of the substitute production and how long it has been in use. The ...
    • The Impact of Bunker Risk Management on CO2 Emissions in Maritime Transportation Under ECA Regulation 

      Gu, Yewen; Wallace, Stein W.; Wang, Xin (Discussion paper;17/16, Working paper, 2016-11-16)
      The shipping industry carries over 90 percent of the world’s trade, and is hence a major contributor to CO2 and other airborne emissions. As a global effort to reduce air pollution from ships, the implementation of the ECA ...
    • The impact of international tax information exchange agreements on the use of tax amnesty: evidence from Norway 

      Andersson, Jonas; Schroyen, Fred; Torsvik, Gaute (Discussion paper;12/19, Working paper, 2019-10-04)
      In this paper we develop a model for tax amnesty applications in a multi-period setting. One key insight from the model is that applying for amnesty becomes more attractive at the moment when stricter enforcement is ...
    • The Life Cycle Model with Recursive Utility: New insights on optimal consumption 

      Aase, Knut K. (Discussion papers;19/14, Working paper, 2014-05)
      We analyze optimal consumption, including pensions, during the life time of a consumer using the life cycle model, when the consumer has recursive utility. The model framework is that of continuous-time with diffusion ...
    • The likely impact of Basel III on a bank's appetite for renewable energy financ 

      Narbel, Patrick A. (Discussion paper;10/2013, Working paper, 2013-10)
      The new Basel III regulations are likely to make long-term financing more expensive, which will affect the financing of capital-intensive renewable energy technologies, because they typically rely on long-term financing. ...
    • The Method of Leader’s Overthrow in Networks 

      Belik, Ivan; Jörnsten, Kurt (Discussion paper;1/16, Working paper, 2016-01-21)
      Methods for leader’s detection and overthrow in networks are useful tools for decision-making in many real-life cases, such as criminal networks with hidden patterns or money laundering networks. In the given research, we ...
    • The Multifactor Model of the Agent’s Power in Social Networks 

      Belik, Ivan; Hexmoor, Henry (Discussion paper;11/2013, Working paper, 2013-10)
      The analysis of social reasoning is at the core of understanding how to manage social networks. Since interpersonal relations are composed of multiple factors with different nature (i.e., structural and social factors), ...
    • The optimal extraction rate versus the expected real return of a sovereign wealth fund 

      Aase, Knut K.; Bjerksund, Petter (Discussion paper;7/19, Working paper, 2019-09-06)
      With reference to funds established for the benefits of the public at large, a university endowment, or other similar sovereign wealth fund, we demonstrate that the optimal extraction rate from the fund is significantly ...
    • The Silver Lining of Price Spikes: How electricity price spikes can help overcome the energy efficiency gap 

      Mauritzen, Johannes (Discussion paper;07/13, Working paper, 2013-08)
      Studies have shown that many consumers and businesses fail to invest in energy efficiency improvements despite seemingly ample financial incentives to do so – the so-­‐called energy efficiency ...
    • The Tax Sensitivity of Debt in Multinationals: A Review 

      Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper;29/15, Working paper, 2015-10-30)
      The OECD in its BEPS action plan 4 addresses tax base erosion by profit shifting through the use of tax deductible interest payments. Their main concern is interest deductions between outbound and inbound investment by ...
    • The tenuous relationship between effort and performance pay 

      Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E. (Discussion paper;2012:8, Working paper, 2012-06)
      When a worker is offered performance related pay, the incentive effect is not only determined by the shape of the incentive contract, but also by the probability of contract enforcement. We show that weaker enforcement ...
    • The value of foresight in the drybulk freight market 

      Prochazka, Vit; Adland, Roar; Wallace, Stein W. (Discussion paper;1/18, Working paper, 2018-01-31)
      We analyze the value of foresight in the drybulk freight market when repositioning a vessel through space and time. In order to do that, we apply an optimization model on a network with dynamic regional freight rate ...
    • The Zero Lower Bound and Market Spillovers: Evidence from the G7 and Norway 

      Kyritsis, Evangelos; Serletis, Apostolos (Discussion paper;7/17, Working paper, 2017-05-31)
      This paper investigates mean and volatility spillovers between the crude oil market and three financial markets, namely the debt, stock, and foreign exchange markets, while providing international evidence from each of the ...
    • A theory of certification with an application to the market for auditing services 

      Hvide, Hans K. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-08)
      The paper develops a theory which attempts to understand segmentation and fee-setting in certification markets. The basis for the theory is that certifiers offer differentiated tests; for a given object it may be more ...
    • Toeholds and fire-sales in bankruptcy auctions 

      Eckbo, B. Espen; Thorburn, Karin S. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000-11)
      We study the role of distressed bank debt in affecting the outcome of Swedish bankruptcy auctions. The auction determines the going-concern premium, i.e., the premium over the piecemeal liquidation value to be paid for the ...
    • Tournament rewards and risk taking 

      Hvide, Hans K. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000-06)
      In a tournament, a principal sets a prize, and several agents then compete to attain the highest observed output, and win the prize. This paper departs from the existing literature on tournaments by assuming that agents ...