Now showing items 470-489 of 506

    • Tournament rewards and risk taking 

      Hvide, Hans K. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000-06)
      In a tournament, a principal sets a prize, and several agents then compete to attain the highest observed output, and win the prize. This paper departs from the existing literature on tournaments by assuming that agents ...
    • Tournaments with prize-setting agents 

      Eriksen, Kristoffer W.; Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-10)
      In many tournaments it is the contestants themselves who determine reward allocation. Labor-union members bargain over wage distribution, and many firms allow self-managed teams to freely determine internal resource ...
    • Trade and communication under subjective information 

      Stecher, Jack Douglas (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-01)
      This paper models an economy where agents perceive the choices they face subjectively, and have subjective interpretations of the terminology they use in a shared business language. Preferences are defined on what an agent ...
    • Trading for the future : signaling in permit markets 

      Harstad, Bård; Eskeland, Gunnar S. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-03)
    • Transfer pricing and debt shifting in multinationals 

      Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion papers;22/14, Working paper, 2014-05)
      There is a growing concern that governments lose substantial corporate tax revenue due to transfer pricing and debt shifting strategies. Existing literature studies debt shifting and transfer pricing separately. In ...
    • Tre grupper skatteytere i søkelyset: Har de ulike kjennetegn? 

      Andersson, Jonas; Lillestøl, Jostein (Discussion paper;5/17, Working paper, 2017-03-31)
      Denne rapporten analyserer data for tre grupper av skatteytere som har vært i skatteetatens søkelys: Skatteytere som etter skatteamnesti har meldt seg frivillig med opplysninger om tidligere uoppgitt skattbar inntekt eller ...
    • Treating missing values in INAR(1) models 

      Andersson, Jonas; Karlis, Dimitris (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-07)
      Time series models for count data have found increased interest in recent days. The existing literature refers to the case of data that have been fully observed. In the present paper, methods for estimating the parameters ...
    • The Triple Difference Estimator 

      Olden, Andreas; Møen, Jarle (Discussion paper;1/20, Working paper, 2020-04-22)
      Triple difference has become a widely used estimator in empirical work. A close reading of articles in top economics journals reveals that the use of the estimator to a large extent rests on intuition. The identifying ...
    • Two paradigms and Nobel prizes in economics : a contradiction or coexistence? 

      Levy, Haim; De Giorgi, Enrico; Hens, Thorsten (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2003-06)
      Markowitz and Sharpe won the Nobel Prize in Economics more than a decade ago for the development of Mean-Variance analysis and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). In the year 2002, Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in ...
    • Using bank mergers and acquisitions to understand lending relationships 

      Hetland, Ove Rein; Mjøs, Aksel (Discussion paper;2011:13, Working paper, 2011-08)
      We study how firm-bank lending relationships affect firms' access to and terms of credit. We use bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as exogenous events that affect lending relationships. Bank M&As lead to organisational ...
    • Using lagrangean relaxation to minimize the (weighted) number of late jobs on a single machine 

      Dauzère-Pérès, Stéphane; Sevaux, Marc (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1999-06)
      This paper tackles the general single machine scheduling problem, where jobs have different release and due dates and the objective is to minimize the weighted number of late jobs. The notion of master sequence is first ...
    • Using option pricing theory to infer about equity premiums 

      Aase, Knut K. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-11)
      In this paper we make use of option pricing theory to infer about historical equity premiums. This we do by comparing the prices of an American perpetual put option computed using two different models: The first is the ...
    • Valuation and risk management in the Norwegian electricity market 

      Bjerksund, Petter; Rasmussen, Heine; Stensland, Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000)
      The purpose of this paper is two-fold: Firstly, we analyze option value approximation of traded options in the presence of a volatility term structure. The options are identified as: "European" (written on the forward price ...
    • Valuation of irreversible investments : private information about the investment cost 

      Mæland, Jøril (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1999-11)
      This article examines dynamic investment decisions when there is an agency problem. A principal delegates the decision of an investment strategy of a project to an agent. The agent has private information about the investment ...
    • The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields 

      Cooper, Ian A.; Nyborg, Kjell G. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-07)
      Fernandez (2004b) argues that the present value effect of the tax saving on debt cannot be calculated as simply the present value of the tax shields associated with interest. This contradicts standard results in the ...
    • The value relevance of financial reporting on the Oslo Stock Exchange over the period 1964-2003 

      Gjerde, Øystein; Knivsflå, Kjell Henry; Sættem, Frode (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005)
      This article focuses on the value relevance of financial statements in Norway over the 40-year period from 1964 to 2003. Since Norwegian generally accepted accounting principles are based on an earnings-oriented conceptual ...
    • The value-relevance of adopting IFRS : evidence from 145 NGAAP restatements 

      Gjerde, Øystein; Knivsflå, Kjell Henry; Sættem, Frode (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-10)
      Firms listed on stock exchanges within the European Economic Area are required to report consolidated financial statements according to IFRS from 2005. The firms that adopted IFRS in 2005 were also required to restate their ...
    • Valuing the Debt Tax Shield 

      Cooper, Ian A.; Nyborg, Kjell G. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007)
      The tax shield from debt represents a significant proportion of total value for many companies, projects, and transactions. Accurate valuation of the debt tax shield is of more importance than ever as leverage is now ...
    • Viewing the deregulated electricity market as a bilevel programming problem 

      Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2000)
      In this paper we present a bilevel programming formulation of a deregulated electricity market. By looking at a deregulated electricity market in this format we achieve two things, the relation between a deregulated ...
    • Voces populi and the art of listening 

      Stensholt, Eivind (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-06)
      The strategy most damaging to many preferential election methods is to give insincerely low rank to the main opponent of one’s favorite candidate. Theorem 1 determines the 3-candidate Condorcet method that minimizes the ...