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An Economic Analysis of Debarment
(Discussion paper;23/15, Working paper, 20150917)With a view to reducing the consequences of corruption in public procurement, many governments have introduced debarment of suppliers found guilty of corrup tion and some other forms of crime. This paper explores the ... 
Analysing flexible load contracts in the energy market
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 200211)In this paper we analyse flexible load contracts (FLC), a type of "swing" option. This contract type has existed in energy markets for a long time and has proved to be challenging to value. The term swing refers to the ... 
An analysis of a combinatorial auction
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001)Our objective is to find prices on individual items in a combinatorial auction that support the optimal allocation of bundles of items, i.e. the solution to the winner determination problem of the combinatorial auction. ... 
Analyzing learning effects in the newsvendor model by probabilistic methods
(Discussion paper;13/19, Working paper, 20191011)In this paper, we use probabilistic methods to analyze learning effects in a behavioral experiment on the newsvendor model. We argue why we should believe that suggested orders follow a multinomial logit distribution, and ... 
Analyzing risk of stock collapse in a fishery under stochastic profit maximization
(Discussion paper;2012:4, Working paper, 201204)In commercial fisheries, stock collapse is an intrinsic problem caused by overexploitation or due to pure stochasticity. To analyze the risk of stock collapse, we apply a relatively simple Monte Carlo approach which can ... 
Annuity factors, duration and convexity : insights from a financial engineering perspective
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 199812)This paper applies a unified and integrative financial engineering perspective to key derived concepts in traditional fixed income analysis, with the purpose of enhancing conceptual insights and motivating computational ... 
Anomalies of Instant Runoff Voting
(Discussion paper;6/20, Working paper, 20200623)Struggles over the singleseat preferential election method IRV (Instant Runoff Voting) go on in public arenas and scientific journals, with focus on two “anomalies”. “Monotonicity failures” are preference distributions ... 
An anticipative linear filtering equation
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 201008) 
Apple's Agency Model and the Role of Resale Price Maintenance
(Discussion paper;32/15, Working paper, 20151127)The agency model is a business format used by online digital platform providers (such as Apple and Google) in which retail pricing decisions are delegated to upstream content providers subject to a fixed revenuesharing ... 
An approach to adaptive carbon taxes in the presence of global warming
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 199801)The optimal extraction path of fossil fuels and the corresponding corrective tax on extraction are derived when two types of externalities associated with emission of carbondioxide (CO2) are taken into account. The optimal ... 
Approximating closed form solutions to a class of feedback policies
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 200909)Dynamic optimization problems cover a large class of problems in theoretical and applied economics. A simple iterative algorithm with fast convergence is proposed. It is demonstrated that the algorithm in a few steps ... 
An arbitrary benchmark CAPM : one additional frontier portfolio is sufficient
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 200810)The benchmark CAPM linearly relates the expected returns on an arbitrary asset, an arbitrary benchmark portfolio, and an arbitrary MV frontier portfolio. The benchmark is not required to be on the frontier and may be ... 
Are Central Bankers Inflation Nutters?  A Bayesian MCMC Estimator of the Long Memory Parameter in a State Space Model
(Discussion paper;38/14, Working paper, 201412)Several central banks have adopted inflation targets. The implementation of these targets is flexible; the central banks aim to meet the target over the long term but allow inflation to deviate from the target in the ... 
Area yield futures and options : risk management and hedging
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002)Suppose there exists a market for yield futures contracts as well as ordinary futures contracts for price. Intuitively one would think that a combined use of yield contracts and and futures price contracts ought to provide ... 
Area yield futures and options : risk management and hedging
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001)It is shown how a farmer can lock in a certain revenue by a combined trade in futures price and futures yield contracts, abstracting from production costs. An economic model is proposed for a combined price futures and ... 
Assessment of the Norwegian transmission pricing rules by using a modified ACOPF
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004)This paper focuses on the combined effects of loss factors and zonal pricing in a system that takes as a starting point the procedures of transmission pricing in the Norwegian power system. It interprets the notion of loss ... 
Asset ownership and implicit contracts
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 199812)In a setting with two managers/owners who both make relation and assetspecific investments, I suggest a model where a linear implicit contract can strengthen the incentives to invest, if the parties are sufficiently ... 
Asset ownership and relational contracts
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002)In a setting where two managers make relationship and assetspecific investments, the optimal relational contract specifies the same payments that renegotiations would have led to in a spot mode, plus a fixed transfer and ... 
Asset ownership and risk aversion
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 199812)I suggest a model for two managers/owners and two assets, where the optimal allocation of ownership rights is jointly determined by the parties’ risk aversion and the specificity of their investments. The managers are ... 
Asset specificity and vertical integration
(Discussion paper, Working paper, 200309)Asset specificity is usually considered to be an argument for vertical integration. The main idea is that specificity induces opportunistic behaviour, and that vertical integration reduces this problem of opportunism. In ...