On the economic geography of dual distribution - The case of McDonald’s in Germany
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- Discussion papers (FOR) 
We analyze the allocation of ownership in a franchise system by focusing on location-specific characteristics of the outlets. This study uses a comprehensive data set on McDonald’s restaurants in Germany to investigate the drivers of the decision on whether outlets are companyowned or franchised. We find strong evidence for the repeat-customer hypothesis by showing that outlets are significantly more likely to be company-owned when they are located at places with relatively few repeat customers.We observe the same for outlets that are closer to McDonald’s headquarters. Finally, we find pronounced clustering of multi-unit franchisees.