Now showing items 31-50 of 557

    • Baby booming inequality?: demographic change and inequality in Norway, 1967-2004 

      Almås, Ingvild; Havnes, Tarjei; Mogstad, Magne (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-02)
      We demonstrate how age-adjusted inequality measures can be used to evaluate whether changes in inequality over time are because of changes in the age structure. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that the substantial ...
    • A balanced view of development as freedom 

      Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-10)
      Amartya Sen, in his most recent book Development as Freedom, argues that expansion of human freedom should both be viewed as the primary end and the principle means of development. This paper provides an overview and a ...
    • Basic analytics of multilateral lending and surveillance 

      Hagen, Rune Jansen (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-09)
      I analyse whether multilateral lending may be justified in a world of global capital markets if multilaterals have an informational advantage over lenders in the market for sovereign debt. I show that the adverse selection ...
    • Beliefs About Racial Discrimination and Support for Pro-Black Policies 

      Haaland, Ingar; Roth, Christopher (DP SAM;02/2019, Working paper, 2019-02-05)
      We examine whether beliefs about racial discrimination causally affect support for pro-black policies. Using representative samples of Americans, we elicit quantitative and incentivized beliefs about the extent of labor ...
    • A benchmark value for relative prudence 

      Schroyen, Fred; Etner, Johanna; Eeckhoudt, Louis (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-10)
      In this paper we propose benchmark values for the coefficients of relative risk aversion and relative prudence on the basis of a binary choice model where the decision maker chooses between aggregating or disaggragatin ...
    • Beyond trade costs : firms' endogenous access to international markets 

      Pires, Armando José Garcia (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-10)
      In this paper we argue that the level of access to international markets by firms is related not only to exogenous factors such as trade costs, but also to endogenous factors such as strategic competition on R&D. In ...
    • Breaking the glass ceiling? : the effect of board quotas on female labor market outcomes in Norway 

      Bertrand, Marianne; Black, Sandra E.; Jensen, Sissel; Lleras-Muney, Adriana (Discussion paper;28/2014, Working paper, 2014-08)
      In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent representation of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase the representation of women ...
    • Breaking the Links: Natural Resource Booms and Intergenerational Mobility 

      Bütikofer, Aline; Dalla-Zuanna, Antonio; Salvanes, Kjell G. (DP SAM;19/2018, Working paper, 2018-09)
      Do large economic shocks increase intergenerational earnings mobility through creating new economic opportunities? Alternatively, do they reduce mobility by reinforcing the links between generations? In this paper, we ...
    • Bridging the tax-expenditure gap : green taxes and the marginal cost of funds 

      Sandmo, Agnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-02)
      The marginal cost of public funds is usually seen as a number greater than one, reflecting the efficiency cost of distortionary taxes. But economic intuition suggests that since green taxes are efficiency-enhancing the ...
    • The broadband access market : competition, uniform pricing and geographical coverage 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-12)
      In this paper we analyze the market for broadband access. A key feature of this market is that it is considerably more expensive to connect consumers in rural locations than in urban locations. We show that while competition ...
    • Building Bridges and Widening Gaps: Efficiency Gains and Equity Concerns of Labor Market Expansions 

      Bütikofer, Aline; Løken, Katrine V.; Willén, Alexander (DP SAM;19/2019, Working paper, 2019-10-20)
      We exploit the opening of a large bridge to study how access to a larger labor market affects economic efficiency, and how these potential efficiency gains are distributed across workers. The bridge we study connected the ...
    • Business models for media firms : does competition matter for how they raise revenue? 

      Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the ...
    • Buying influence : aid fungibility in a strategic perspective 

      Hagen, Rune Jansen (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-04)
      I study equilibria of non-cooperative games between an aid donor and a recipient when there is conflict over the allocation of their combined budgets. The general conclusion is that a donor’s influence over outcomes is ...
    • Can a mixed health care system be desirable on equity grounds ? 

      Marchand, Maurice; Schroyen, Fred (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2003-02)
      Should health care provision be public, private, or both? We look at this question in a setting where people differ in their earnings capacity and face some illness risk. We assume that illness reduces a person's time ...
    • Can competition reduce quality? 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper;9/2012, Working paper, 2012-03)
      We study the effect of competition on quality in markets such as health care, long-term care and education, when providers choose both prices and quality in a setting of spatial competition. We offer a novel mechanism ...
    • Can Female Doctors Cure the Gender STEMM Gap? Evidence from Randomly Assigned General Practitioners 

      Riise, Julie; Willage, Barton; Willen, Alexander (DP SAM;18/2019, Working paper, 2019-10)
      We use random assignment of general practitioners (GPs) to provide the first evidence on the effects of female role models in childhood on the long-run educational outcomes of girls. We find that girls who are exposed to ...
    • Capital taxation and imperfect competition : ACE vs. CBIT 

      Brekke, Kurt R.; Pires, Armando José Garcia; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper;32/14, Working paper, 2014-11)
      This paper studies the market and welfare effects of two main tax reforms – the Corporate Business Income Tax (CBIT) and the Allowance for Corporate Equity tax (ACE). Using an imperfect-competition model for a small open ...
    • Care or cash? : the effect of child care subsidies on student performance 

      Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Løken, Katrine Vellesen; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper;13/2012, Working paper, 2012-05)
      Given the wide use of childcare subsidies across countries, it is surprising how little we know about the effect of these subsidies on children’s longer run outcomes. Using a sharp discontinuity in the price of childcare ...
    • Cartels uncovered 

      Steen, Frode; Toivanen, Otto; Hyytinen, Ari (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-03)
      How many cartels are there? The answer is important in assessing the efficiency of competition policy. We present a Hidden Markov Model that answers the question, taking into account that often we do not know whether a ...
    • Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes 

      Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-03)
      The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise’s choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of ...