Now showing items 364-383 of 575

    • Patenting and early industrialization in Norway, 1860-1914 : was there a linkage? 

      Basberg, Bjørn L. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-09)
    • Patient Mobility, Health Care Quality and Welfare 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Levaggi, Rosella; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion Papers;13/2011, Working paper, 2011-08)
      Patient mobility is a key issue in the EU who recently passed a new law on patients right to EU-wide provider choice. In this paper we use a Hotelling model with two regions that differ in technology to study the impact ...
    • Pay and performance in a call centre : principals and agents or principally angels? 

      Aarbu, Karl Ove; Torsvik, Gaute (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-11)
      We use data from a pay reform in an insurance company to contrast different theories of work motivations. The management installed performance pay to boost sales in the customer service centre of the company. The reform ...
    • Paying for staying : managerial contracts and the retention motive 

      Ellingsen, Tore; Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard (Discussion paper;8/2012, Working paper, 2012-03)
      Talented managers may leave the firm in order to work elsewhere. Focusing on the portability of managers' resources, we develop a model in which managerial compensation is designed to prevent inefficient departure. The ...
    • Paywalls and the demand for online news 

      Skjeret, Frode; Steen, Frode; Wyndham, Timothy G.A (DP SAM;07/2019, Working paper, 2019-03)
      The digitisation of society has posed a challenge to news outlets. Seeking advertising revenues and facing competition for the attention of their readers, many news outlets entered the digital era with unrestricted access ...
    • Pennies from heaven : using exogenous tax variation to identify effects of school resources on pupil achievement 

      Hægeland, Torbjørn; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-07)
      Despite important policy implications associated with the allocation of education resources, evidence on the effectiveness of school inputs remains inconclusive. In part, this is due to endogenous allocation; families ...
    • Pension funds, sovereign-wealth funds and intergenerational justice 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Urheim, Runa (Discussion paper;19/2012, Working paper, 2012-09)
      Pension funds and sovereign-wealth funds own a large and increasing fraction of the shares in publicly traded companies in the OECD area. These funds typically have a very long time horizon on their investments, as well ...
    • Performance Measurement in Agency Models 

      Chang Koo, Chi; Kyoung Jin, Choi (DP SAM;05/2019, Working paper, 2019-02-25)
      This note explores how to evaluate an agent’s performance in standard incentive contracts. We show that the MPS criterion proposed by Kim (1995) becomes a tight condition for one performance measurement system to be more ...
    • Person-affecting paretian egalitarianism with variable population size 

      Tungodden, Bertil; Vallentyne, Peter (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-08)
      Where there is a fixed population (i.e., who exists does not depend on what choice an agent makes), the deontic version of anonymous Paretian egalitarianism holds that an option is just if and only if (1) it is anonymously ...
    • Perspectives on the economic history of the Antarctic region 

      Basberg, Bjørn L. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-09)
      This paper starts out by indicating how the economic history of the Antarctic could be conceptualized, given the peculiarities of the continent and the region (no permanent population, no sovereignty in a traditional ...
    • Pharmaceutical patents : incentives for R&D or marketing? 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-11)
      We analyse how a patent-holding pharmaceutical firm may strategically use advertising of existing drugs to affect R&D investments in new (differentiated) drugs, and thereby affect the probability distribution of future ...
    • The pluralism of fairness ideals : an experimental approach 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Hole, Astri Drange; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-09)
      A core question in the contemporary debate on distributive justice is how the fair distribution of income is affected by differences in talent and effort. Important theories of distributive justice, such as strict ega ...
    • Policy competition for foreign direct investment between asymmetric countries 

      Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Eckel, Carsten (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-09)
      The present paper analyses policy competition for foreign direct investment between a larger and industrially more developed country and a smaller and industrially less developed country. We demonstrate how policy ...
    • Policy measures and storage in a hydropower system 

      Skaar, Jostein (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-02)
      In this paper we discuss how three different public policy measures affect water storage controlled by hydropower producing firms. In particular we discuss measures to promote competition, increase transmission capacity ...
    • Political Uncertainty and Household Savings 

      Aaberge, Rolf; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Yu (Discussion paper;34/14, Working paper, 2014-12)
      Despite macroeconomic evidence pointing to a negative aggregate consumption response due to political uncertainty, few papers have used microeconomic panel data to analyze how households adjust their consumption after ...
    • A Poorly Understood Disease? The Unequal Distribution of Excess Mortality Due to COVID-19 Across French Municipalities 

      Brandily, Paul; Brébion, Clément; Briole, Simon; Khoury, Laura (DP SAM;15/2020, Working paper, 2020-08)
      While COVID-19 was responsible for more than 600,000 deaths worldwide as of July 24, 2020, very little is known about the socio-economic heterogeneity of its impact on mortality. In this paper, we combine several administrative ...
    • Port pricing : principles, structure and models 

      Meersman, Hilde; Strandenes, Siri Pettersen; Van de Voorde, Eddy (Discussion paper;14/2014, Working paper, 2014-04)
      Price level and price transparency are input to shippers’ choice of supply chain and transport mode. In this paper, we analyse current port pricing structures in the light of the pricing literature and consider opportunities ...
    • Poverty measurement : the critical comparison value 

      Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 1998-11)
      The basic problem in poverty measurement is how to weigh the income of different groups. This is a normative problem on which people differ in opinion, and hence we should seek a way of dealing with the issue that takes ...
    • The premium of marine protected areas : a simple valuation model 

      Kvamsdal, Sturla Furunes; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-03)
      Marine Protected Areas are considered as a hedging tool against some of the uncertainties that trouble many fisheries today. Such tools are always connected with a cost; a premium. An optimal harvest rule is combined ...
    • Price and quality in spatial competition 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      We study the relationship between competition and quality within a spatial competition framework where firms compete in prices and quality. We generalise existing literature on spatial price-quality competition along ...