• Access pricing, quality degradation, and foreclosure in the Internet 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-03)
      Access to both a local and a global network is needed in order to get complete connection to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the interplay between those two networks and how it affects the domestic ...
    • The broadband access market : competition, uniform pricing and geographical coverage 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-12)
      In this paper we analyze the market for broadband access. A key feature of this market is that it is considerably more expensive to connect consumers in rural locations than in urban locations. We show that while competition ...
    • Competition and compatibility among Internet service providers 

      Foros, Øystein; Hansen, Bjørn (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-03)
      We consider a two-stage game between two competing Internet service providers(ISPs). The firms offer access to the Internet. Access is assumed to be vertically and horizontally differentiated. Our model exhibits network ...
    • Demand-side spillovers and semi-collusion in the mobile communications market 

      Foros, Øystein; Hansen, Bjørn; Sand, Jan Yngve (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-12)
      We analyze roaming policy in the market for mobile telecommunications. Firms undertake investments in network infrastructure to increase geographical coverage, capacity in a given area, or functionality. Prior to ...
    • Do slotting allowances harm retail competition? 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-09)
      Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Both in the USA and Europe, the use of slotting allowances has attracted attention in the general press as well as among policy ...
    • Endogenous average cost based access pricing 

      Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-10)
      We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to ...
    • Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays : an outcome of aggressive competition? 

      Foros, Øystein; Steen, Frode (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-03)
      This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station-specific observations from March 2003 to March 2006. Whereas studies that have analyzed similar price cycles in other countries find support for the ...
    • International complementarities in the Internet : should local access prices be regulated? 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-05)
      The Internet can be seen as the convergence of different industries, such as telecommunication, software and media, into an international oligopoly offering complementary products. In most of these industries we have ...
    • Licensing technology and foreclosure 

      Clark, Derek J.; Foros, Øystein; Sand, Jan Yngve (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-10)
      We consider an industry where one firm with a superior technology competes for market shares with several rivals. The owner of the superior technology (the dominant firm) can license or transfer the source of its ...
    • Media market concentration, advertising levels, and ad prices 

      Anderson, Simon P.; Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Peitz, Martin (Discussion Papers;24/2011, Working paper, 2011-12)
      Standard media economics models imply that increased platform com- petition decreases ad levels and that mergers reduce per-viewer ad prices. The empirical evidence, however, is mixed. We attribute the theoretical predictions ...
    • Mergers and partial ownership 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Shaffer, Greg (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2010-01)
      In this paper we compare the profitability of a merger to the profitability of a partial ownership arrangement and find that partial ownership arrangements can be more profitable for the acquiring and acquired firm because ...
    • Price-dependent profit sharing as an escape from the Bertrand paradox 

      Foros, Øystein; Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-01)
      In this paper we show how an upstream firm can prevent destructive competition among downstream firms producing relatively close substitutes by implementing a price-dependent profit-sharing rule. The rule also ensures ...
    • Price-dependent profit-sharing as a channel coordination device 

      Foros, Øystein; Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2009-07)
      We show how an upstream firm by using a price-dependent profit-sharing rule can prevent destructive competition between downstream firms that produce relatively close substitutes. With this rule the upstream firm induces ...
    • Resale price maintenance and restrictions on dominant firm and industry-wide adoption 

      Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Shaffer, Greg (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-06)
      This paper examines the use of market-share thresholds (safe harbors) in evaluating whether a given vertical practice should be challenged. Such thresholds are typically found in vertical restraints guidelines (e.g., the ...
    • Size-based input price discrimination under endogenous inside options 

      Evensen, Charlotte B.; Foros, Øystein; Haugen, Atle; Kind, Hans Jarle (DP SAM;06/2021, Working paper, 2021-03)
      Individual retailers may choose to invest in a substitute to a dominant supplier’s products (inside option) as a way of improving its position towards the supplier. Given that a large retailer has stronger investment ...
    • Strategic investments with spillovers, vertical integration and foreclosure in the broadband access market 

      Foros, Øystein (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-06)
      We analyse competition between two firms (ISPs) in the retail market for broadband access. One of the firms is vertically integrated and controls the input market for local access. The vertically integrated firm undertakes ...
    • Text and voice : complements, substitutes or both? 

      Andersson, Kjetil; Foros, Øystein; Steen, Frode (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005)
      Text messaging has become an important revenue component for European and Asian mobile operators. We develop a simple model of demand for mobile services incorporating the existence of call externalities and network ...
    • The Effects of a Day Off from Retail Price Competition: Evidence on Consumer Behavior and Firm Performance in Gasoline Retailing. 

      Foros, Øystein; Nguyen-Ones, Mai; Steen, Frode (DP SAM;1/2018, Working paper, 2018-01)
      First, we analyze how regular days off from competition and a time-dependent price pattern affect firm performance. Second, we examine the effects on firms' profitability from consumers’ changing search- and timing behavior. ...