Now showing items 403-422 of 575

    • Quality competition with profit constraints : do non-profit firms provide higher quality than for-profit firms? 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2011-02)
    • Quality Regulation and Competition: Evidence from Pharmaceutical Markets 

      Atal, Juan Pablo; Cuesta, José Ignacio; Sæthre, Morten (DP SAM;20/2018, Working paper, 2018-09)
      We study the effects of quality regulation on market outcomes by exploiting the staggered phase-in of bioequivalence requirements for generic drugs in Chile. We estimate that the number of drugs in the market decreased by ...
    • Quota Enforcement and Capital Investment in Natural Resource Industries 

      Lazkano, Itziar; Nøstbakken, Linda (Discussion paper;21/15, Working paper, 2015-08)
      We investigate the relationship between quota enforcement, compliance, and capital accumulation in ITQ regulated fisheries. Over-extraction and over-capacity represent two of the main fisheries management challenges, and ...
    • R&D and strategic industrial location in international oligopolies 

      Pires, Armando José Garcia (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-03)
    • R&D policies, trade and process innovation 

      Haaland, Jan Ingvald Meidell; Kind, Hans Jarle (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-11)
      We set up a simple trade model with two countries hosting one firm each. The firms invest in cost-reducing R&D, and each government may grant R&D subsidies to the domestic firm. We show that it is optimal for a government ...
    • Redistributive taxation and the household : the case of individual filings 

      Schroyen, Fred (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-01)
      In this paper I look at the tax treatment of households under individual filings and characterise the efficiency properties of an income tax schedule that redistributes from rich to poor households. Because tax liabilities ...
    • Reference pricing of pharmaceuticals 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Königbauer, Ingrid; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-11)
      We consider a therapeutic market with potentially three pharmaceutical firms. Two of the firms offer horizontally differentiated brand-name drugs. One of the brand-name drugs is a new treatment under patent protection ...
    • Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry 

      Brekke, Kurt R.; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper;04/15, Working paper, 2015-03)
      In this paper we study the effect of reference pricing on pharmaceutical prices and expenditures when generic entry is endogenously determined. We develop a Salop-type model where a brand-name producer competes with generic ...
    • Regional growth in Western Europe : an empirical exploration of interactions with agriculture and agricultural policy 

      Bivand, Roger S.; Brunstad, Rolf Jens (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2002-01)
      Studies of convergence of regional growth in Western Europe have given varying results, depending on the addition of conditioning variables and estimation methods, as well as underlying models. This exploration adds ...
    • Regional growth in Western Europe : detecting spatial misspecification using the R environment 

      Bivand, Roger S.; Brunstad, Rolf Jens (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-01)
      The work discussed in Bivand and Brunstad (2003) was an attempt to throw light on apparent variability in regional convergence in relation to agriculture as a sector subject to powerful political measures, in Western ...
    • Regional policy and rent seeking : targeted versus broad based policies 

      Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Coniglio, Nicola D. (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2005-04)
      Policies aimed at promoting regional development have often had disappointing results. The present paper offers an explanation for why such policies may fail, and, more importantly, analyses how policies may be designed ...
    • Regional policy design : an analysis of relocation, efficiency and equity 

      Midelfart, Karen Helene (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-02)
      Despite substantial regional expenditures at both national and community level, European regional policies do not appear to deliver. The evidence suggests that neither efficiency gains nor reduced regional inequalities are ...
    • Regulation and pricing of pharmaceuticals : reference pricing or price cap regulation? 

      Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Brekke, Kurt Richard; Holmås, Tor Helge (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-09)
      We study the relationship between regulatory regimes and pharmaceutical firms’ pricing strategies using a unique policy experiment from Norway, which in 2003 introduced a reference price (RP) system called “index pricing” ...
    • Regulation of pollution in a Cournot equilibrium 

      Mathiesen, Lars (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2008-06)
      In the traditional Cournot model producers influence each other’s decisions through revenue earned in the product market. Rosen (1965) introduced the notion of a coupled constraints equilibrium which allowed players to ...
    • Regulation, generic competition and pharmaceutical prices : theory and evidence from a natural experiment 

      Brekke, Kurt Richard; Holmås, Tor Helge; Straume, Odd Rune (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2007-12)
      We study the impact of regulatory regimes on generic competition and pharmaceutical pricing using a unique policy experiment in Norway, where reference pricing (RP) replaced price cap regulation in 2003 for a sub-sample ...
    • Relational Incentive Contracts and Performance Measurement. 

      Chi, Chang Koo; Olsen, Trond E. (DP SAM;7/2018, Working paper, 2018-04)
      This paper analyzes relational contracts under moral hazard. We first show that if the available information (signal) about effort satisfies a generalized monotone likelihood ratio property, then irrespective of whether ...
    • Relative wages and trade-induced changes in technology 

      Midelfart, Karen Helene; Ekholm, Karolina (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2001-09)
      We develop a model where trade liberalization leads to skill-biased technological change, which in turn raises the relative return to skilled labor. When firms get access to a larger market, the relative profitability of ...
    • Relocating the responsibility cut : should more responsibility imply less redistribution? 

      Cappelen, Alexander W.; Tungodden, Bertil (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2004-12)
      Liberal egalitarian theories of justice argue that inequalities arising from non-responsibility factors should be eliminated, but that inequalities arising from responsibility factors should be accepted. The paper discusses ...
    • Rent Sharing with Footloose Production. Foreign Ownership and Wages Revisited 

      Balsvik, Ragnhild; Sæthre, Morten (Discussion paper;30/14, Working paper, 2014-09)
      We present a bargaining model of wage and employment determina- tion, where we show that foreign acquisitions might hurt the bargaining outcome of powerful unions by giving the firm a credible threat to move production ...
    • A repeat sailings index of ocean freight rates for the 1850s 

      Klovland, Jan Tore (Discussion paper, Working paper, 2006-12)
      The middle of the nineteenth century has long been a challenge to researchers of ocean freight rates. The data originating from the circulars of the London shipbroker firm of Angier Brothers have been the basis of much ...